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蘇州 李鼎과 <石頭記> - 脂硯齋에 대한 고찰을 중심으로Suzhou Liding and Shitouji - Focusing on Exploration of Zhiyanzhai

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Suzhou Liding and Shitouji - Focusing on Exploration of Zhiyanzhai
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脂硯齋; 畸笏叟; 石頭記; 金陵 曹家; 蘇州 李家; 江寧織造; 蘇州織造; 李煦; 李鼎; Zhiyanzhai; Honglou Meng; Shitouji; JinlingCaojia; SuzhouLijia; Jiangningzhizao; Suzhouzhizao; Lixu; Liding
중국소설논총, no.49, pp 147 - 172
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지금까지 《紅樓夢》의 주인공 賈寶玉의 원형이 작가 曹雪芹이냐 아니냐에 대한 의혹뿐 아니라 <脂硯齋重評石頭記>라는 題名으로 필사본 소설이 유통되고 유행하던 당시 評을 달고 편집과 교정에 관여했던 초기 評者 脂硯齋가 누구인가라는 의문에 대한 고증은 여전히 난제로 남아있다. 이에 대해 臺灣의 皮述民 선생님은 그 가능성을 蘇州織造를 지낸 李煦의 장남 李鼎에 무게를 두고 20여년 가까이 蘇州 李家를 연구하신 분이다. 이 논문은 皮述民 선생님의 책을 읽고 이 분 주장을 뒷받침할만한 다른 논문들을 참고해서 蘇州織造 李煦의 아들 李鼎과 《紅樓夢》이란 작품이 어떻게 관련이 있을 수 있는지에 대한 추정들을 정리한 글이다. 江寧織造를 지낸 曹家와 蘇州織造를 지낸 李家는 굉장히 가까운 친인척의 관계로 두 집안 모두 康熙皇帝의 南巡을 4번이나 맞이한 경험이 있는 皇帝의 총애 하에 있던 부유하고 화려했던 권문세가였다. 皇子의 亂에 연루되어 결국 蘇州의 李家가 雍正元年에 재산몰수를 당했고, 金陵 曹家가 雍正 5年 재산몰수를 당하면서 두 집안 모두 北京으로 좌천되어 이전에는 경험해 보지 못한 생활고를 겪는 나락으로 떨어지게 된다. 세월이 흘러 乾隆時代에 와서 정치적 압박이 느슨해 질 즈음, 재산몰수를 당할 당시 이미 성년이었던 李鼎은 자신의 경험을 바탕으로 쓰고 있던 몇 회 분량의 <石頭記> 초고를 자신보다 어리지만 문장력이 뛰어났던 조카 曹雪芹에게 넘기고 작품을 완성할 수 있도록 경제적 지원을 돕는다. 그 과정이 10여년 걸리지만 曹雪芹은 80회까지 쓰고 결국 소설을 완성하지 못한 상태로 숨을 거둔다. 賈寶玉의 원형은 李鼎이라는 이런 추정을 인정하는 학자와 그렇지 않은 학자들 간의 의견이 분분하지만, 賈寶玉 = 脂硯齋 = 李鼎이라는 皮述民 선생의 주장이 아무 근거 없다고 볼 수도 없기에 얼마 안 되는 지면을 통해 소개하는데 의의를 두기로 한다.
Historical research not only on the question whether the prototype for protagonist Jiabaoyu[賈寶玉] of Honglou Meng (Dream of the Red Chamber) was Jiabaoyu or not but also on who the early critic Zhiyanzhai[脂硯齋] was that commented and was involved in editing and proofreading when the transcribed novel was distributed and popularized in the title of Shitouji still remains a difficult problem. Taiwanese Pishumin[皮述民] has studied SuzhouLijia[蘇州 李家] for nearly 20 years suspecting that he might have been Liding[李鼎], the eldest son of Lixu[李煦] who was Suzhouzhizao[蘇州織造]. This study organized assumptions how Liding, the eldest son of Lixu who was Suzhouzhizao, and the work Honglou Meng could be related to each other after reading Pishumin's book and referring to other studies which support his argument. Caojia[曹家] who was Jiangningzhizao[江寧織造] and Lijia[李家] who was Suzhouzhizao were very close relatives and they were rich and influential families who enjoyed emperor's favor and received Emperor Kangxi[康熙]'s Southern rounds as many as 4 times. Implicated in rebellion of Imperial prince, Lijia[李家] in Suzhou[蘇州] had their properties confiscated in the first year of Emperor Yongzheng[雍正] and Caojia[曹家] in Jinling[金陵] had their properties also confiscated in the fifth year of Emperor Yongzheng and both families were relegated to Beijing and experienced suffering and hardships in life for the first time. Around the time when political pressure became loose in Qianlong[乾隆] period, Liding, who had been already an adult when his family had properties confiscated, handed over the draft of several parts of Shitouji which he was writing based on his own experience to his cousin Caoxueqin[曹雪芹] who was younger but had better writing skills and supported him to finish the work. This took around 10 years but Caoxueqin wrote 80 parts and died without completing the novel. Although there are still controversies among scholars on such assumption that prototype of Jiabaoyu was Liding, Pishumin's argument that Jiabaoyu = Zhiyanzhai = Liding is not totally groundless and thus, this study introduce it in not so voluminous thesis.
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