조선 전기 왕실 불사(佛事)의 전승과 음악문화 연구The Musical Culture of Royal Buddhist Services in the Early Joseon Dynasty
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- The Musical Culture of Royal Buddhist Services in the Early Joseon Dynasty
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- 한국음악연구, v.56, no. , pp.239 - 263
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- This paper examines the cultural significance of the continuing performance of Buddhist ritual music on royal occasions in the early Joseon dynasty despite the official policy of suppressing Buddhism. Although previous research has suggested that Buddhist rituals and ceremonies for national events were practiced, little is known on the role and status of Buddhist music during these occasions. Except for A Miracle of Sariri of Buddha (Sariyoungunggi), one of few surviving records of Buddhist ritual during the early Joseon period, only fragments remain from which we can obtain a glimpse of the instrumental accompaniment, the chants, dances and so on. In this paper, I try to reconstruct the situation of Buddhist ritual music in the early Joseon dynasty from the Image of Amitabha (Gamnowangdo), manuals of Buddhist ceremony, and a list of Buddhist musical instruments that were gifted to Japan. Buddhist musical performances, beomeumgu (instrumental music) and beompae (chanting), were performed as a core part of rituals for royal Buddhist occasions such as ancestor memorial services (Jae, 齋), national processions (Gyeonghaeng, 經行), and ceremonies to celebrate the completion of a project (Gyeongchan, 慶讚). During these occasions Buddhist music was provided by an orchestra along with chant and dance. In the orchestra, nagak (Conch horn), bara (cymbals), beopgo (Buddhist drum), gwangseo (small gong), jong (bell), gyung (chime) and unpan (a cloud shape metal plate), were add to string and wind instruments to accompany the chants and dance. Over a period of ninety years, from the reign of King Taejong (1367-1422) to Seongjong (1457-1494), the Joseon court sent musical instruments to Japan at the request of local rulers. This shows that the production and distribution of instruments used in the court were active during the early Joseon dynasty. One of the Buddhist performances at the royal court called eumseong gongyang (chanting service) recorded in Sejong Sillok seems to be related to giak gongyang, an instrumental performance with dancing, and this form of performace, in turn, appears to correspond to the description of Hak, yeonhwadae, cheoyongmuhapseol recorded in the Akhakgwebeom (Korean traditional court musical canon). Buddhist events at the Joseon royal court seems to have played an important function in promoting social cohesion, since people of both genders and all social backgrounds were able to participate on equal terms. Therefor Buddhist rituals continued to exert a strong influence on the royal family and government for the case of nation-wide natural disasters, wishes for long life and after-life. In conclusion, it can be suggested that not only Confucian music, but also traditional Buddhist music, performed an important role in constructing royal musical culture during the early Joseon dynasty.
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