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Ajoene, a Stable Garlic By-Product, Has an Antioxidant Effect through Nrf2-Mediated Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Induction in HepG2 Cells and Primary Hepatocytes

Authors
Kay, Hee YeonYang, Jin Won김태현Lee, Da YeonKang, BomiRyu, Jae-HaJeon, RaokKim, Sang Geon
Issue Date
Jul-2010
Publisher
OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Citation
JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, v.140, no.7, pp.1211 - 1219
Journal Title
JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
Volume
140
Number
7
Start Page
1211
End Page
1219
URI
https://scholarworks.sookmyung.ac.kr/handle/2020.sw.sookmyung/13176
DOI
10.3945/jn.110.121277
ISSN
0022-3166
Abstract
Cytoprotective effects of chemopreventive agents may be attributed to the induction of antioxidant enzymes. Among these, the induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) protects cells from oxidative injury by increasing glutathione (GSH) content. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptionally regulates the expression of genes encoding for GCL and other cysteine-metabolizing enzymes. Despite extensive studies on the components in garlic, little information is available on organosulfur by-products made from garlic. In this study, we investigated whether ajoene, a chemically stable garlic by-product, has the ability to activate Nrf2 and induce GCL, and, if so, what is the role of activating Nrf2 in cytoprotection against oxidative stress. lmmunoblottings and reporter gene assays were performed in HepG2 cells. Ajoene treatment activated Nrf2, as indicated by increased phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, decreased interaction with Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1, and decreased Nrf2 ubiquitination. Consistently, treatment of ajoene increased antioxidant response element reporter gene activity and the mRNA and protein levels of GCL subunits. Ajoene activated protein kinase C-delta (PKC delta). Inhibition of PKC delta activation by rottlerin abrogated its ability to activate Nrf2 and induce GCL, suggesting that ajoene promotes the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense system via PKC delta activation. Consequently, ajoene prevented cell death, GSH depletion, and hydrogen peroxide production elicited by tertbutylhydroperoxide. The important role of Nrf2 in cytoprotection was verified by the reversal of ajoene's ability to protect hepatocytes in Nrf2-knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that ajoene increases PKC delta-dependent Nrf2 activation, GCL induction, and the cellular GSH concentration, which may contribute to protecting cells from oxidative stress. J. Nutr. 140: 1211-1219, 2010.
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