Dopant-Dependent Toxicity of CeO2 Nanoparticles Is Associated with Dynamic Changes in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and Transcriptional Activation of NRF2 Gene in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes
- Choi, Jang Hyun; Lee, Haram; Lee, Hangil; Lee, Hansol
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- cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs); transition metal doping; reactive oxygen species (ROS); NRF2-KEAP1 pathway; histone lysine methylation
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, v.22, no.6, pp.1 - 14
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- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
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- Despite advances in the preparation of metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles (NPs) as catalysts for various applications, concerns about the biosafety of these particles remain. In this study, we prepared transition metal-doped cerium oxide (TM@CeO2; TM = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) nanoparticles and investigated the mechanism underlying dopant-dependent toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes. We show that doping with Cr or Co but not Fe, Mn, or Ni increased the toxicity of CeO2 NPs in dose- and time-dependent manners and led to apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, while both undoped and transition metal-doped NPs increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), toxic Cr@CeO2 and Co@CeO2 NPs failed to induce the expression of NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) as well as its downstream target genes involved in the antioxidant defense system. Moreover, activation of NRF2 transcription was correlated with dynamic changes in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 at the promoter of NRF2, which was not observed in cells exposed to Cr@CeO2 NPs. Furthermore, exposure to relatively non-toxic Fe@CeO2 NPs, but not the toxic Cr@CeO2 NPs, resulted in increased binding of MLL1 complex, a major histone lysine methylase mediating trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4, at the NRF2 promoter. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that failure of cells to respond to oxidative stress is critical for dopant-dependent toxicity of CeO2 NPs and emphasize that careful evaluation of newly developed NPs should be preceded before industrial or biomedical applications.
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