고려초 수도 개경의 도시 공간 구성과 변화Construction of Urban Space and Change of the Gaegyeong, the Capital in the early Goryeo Dynasty
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- Construction of Urban Space and Change of the Gaegyeong, the Capital in the early Goryeo Dynasty
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- 개경; 도시 공간; 황도; 궁성; 황성; 나성; 종묘; 사직; 시전; 관도; Gaegyeong; Urban Space; the capital of the emperor; Jongmyo(Royal Shrine); Sajik(an altar to the State deities); Wongu(the Roung Mound); Gungseong; Hwangseong(Imperial Fortress); Naseong
- 한국중세사연구, no.59, pp.101 - 128
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- The capital, where the king is located, is equipped with all the facilities and organizations necessary for the operation of the nation, including the royal family.
The urban space of the capital reflects the monarchy’s governing ideology, a view of nature, people’s thoughts, living conditions at the time, and external influences.
This study aims at arranging the process of the change of the capital of Goryeo to take shape of the city and examining the principles of national operation reflected in the spatial structure of the city at each period of Goryeo.
Taejo founded Goryeo and established palaces, administrative facilities, and military organizations in Gaegyeong. In addition, Taejo built many temples in Gaegyeong, hoping that Goryeo as a fledgling nation could enjoy eternal development under the protection of Buddha. This reflects the characteristics of Gaegyeong as a city of “Jebulhowui”(諸佛護衛).
During Gwangjong’s reign, he pursued a strong kingship and even an emperor’s right, thus concentrating on maintaining space as an emperor’s city. During this period, Bongeunsa and Bulilsa were founded to establish the legitimacy of kingship and the sacred authority of monarchy. Later, the king purged statesmen of merit to establish absolute authority and distinguished Gaegyeong as ‘the capital of the emperor’ and Seogyeong as ‘the capital of the West.’ As a result, Gaegyeong has established a solid position as the capital.
During the reign of Seongjong, the attempt to fit Gaegyeong’s urban structure with Zhouli’s(周禮) urban system can be seen. This is an attempt to apply the principle of Confucian ritual system. As a result, the city was equipped with ceremonial spaces such as Jongmyo(Royal Shrine), Sajik(an altar to the State deities) and Wongu(the Roung Mound), while the political space and market were reorganized.
In Hyeonjong’s reign, urban facilities were damaged by the war with the Kitan(契丹), which led to extensive renovations. During this period, the Songak fortress was heavily armed and Jungbang was also installed to strengthen the defense and military power of Gaegyeong. As Naseong was established as a result of the 110-year-old Gaegyeong’s maintenance, Gaegyeong had a strong castle system surrounded by Gungseong- Hwangseong(Imperial Fortress)-Naseong.
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