Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber Water Extracts Induce Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production by Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages
- Kim, Jin; Park, Chang-Shin; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Hyun-Sook
- Issue Date
- MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC
- Aster scaber; cyclooxygenase-2; cytokine; Houttuynia cordata; nitric oxide; Paeonia japonica
- JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD, v.12, no.2, pp.365 - 373
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- JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD
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- Natural products are increasingly recognized as potential targets for drug discovery and development. We previously reported that Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber enhanced macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulating effects of these plants on lipopolysacharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. An aqueous extract of each plant was administered to female BALB/c mice every other day for 4 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were then collected and incubated to examine the immunoreactivity of macrophages against LPS at different time points. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inhibitory factor kappa B alpha (I kappa B alpha) proteins and the production of NO metabolite (nitrite), prostaglandin (PG) E-2, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in the activated macrophages treated with extracts from each plant individually or combined. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by A. scaber-, P. japonica-, and H. cordata-treated macrophages following 24 hours of LPS stimulation. P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber treatment also induced the production of nitrate by LPS-treated macrophages. Induction of iNOS mRNA and protein was also different in each group. PGE(2) secretion was up-regulated by all extract-treated macrophages at early time points; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups by 8 hours post-LPS stimulation. Treatment with A. scaber extract resulted in the highest levels of I kappa B alpha degradation. Our findings illustrate that the natural plant products P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber may enhance immune function by modulating ex vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO production as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2.
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- 생활과학대학 > 식품영양학과 > 1. Journal Articles
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