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A Machine Learning Enabled Wireless Intracranial Brain Deformation Sensing System

Authors
Islam, S.Shah, V.Gidde, S. T. R.Hutapea, P.Song, Seung HyunPicone, J.Kim, A.
Issue Date
Dec-2020
Publisher
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Keywords
Magnetic tunneling; Soft magnetic materials; Strain; Sensors; Brain modeling; Magnetic field measurement; Calibration; Traumatic brain injury; brain deformation measurement; magnetic field measurement; magnetic sensors; machine learning
Citation
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, v.67, no.12, pp.3521 - 3530
Journal Title
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Volume
67
Number
12
Start Page
3521
End Page
3530
URI
https://scholarworks.sookmyung.ac.kr/handle/2021.sw.sookmyung/815
DOI
10.1109/TBME.2020.2990071
ISSN
0018-9294
Abstract
A leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is intracranial brain deformation due to mechanical impact. This deformation is viscoelastic and differs from a traditional rigid transformation. In this paper, we describe a machine learning enabled wireless sensing system that predicts the trajectory of intracranial brain deformation. The sensing system consists of an implantable soft magnet and an external magnetic sensor array with a sensing volume of 12 x 12 x 4 mm(3). Machine learning algorithm predicts the brain deformation by interpreting the magnetic sensor outputs created by the change in position of the implanted soft magnet. Three different machine learning models were trained on calibration data: (1) random forests, (2) k-nearest neighbors, and (3) a multi-layer perceptron-based neural network. These models were validated using both in vitro (a needle inserted into PVC gel) and in vivo (blast exposure to live and dead rat brains) experiments. The in vitro gel deformation predicted by these machine learning models showed excellent agreement with the camera measurements and had absolute error = 138 mu m, Frechet distance = 372 mu m with normalized Procrustes disparity = 0.034. The in vivo brain deformation predicted by these models had absolute error = 50 mu m, Frechet distance = 95 mu m with normalized Procrustes disparity = 0.055 for dead animal and absolute error = 125 mu m, Frechet distance = 289 mu m with normalized Procrustes disparity = 0.2 for live animal respectively. These results suggest that the proposed machine learning enabled sensor system can be an effective tool for measuring in situ brain deformation.
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ICT융합공학부 (전자공학전공)
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