Urinary sodium and potassium levels and blood pressure in population with high sodium intake
- Song, Da Young; Youn, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyunga; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Jung Eun
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- MDPI AG
- Diastolic blood pressure; Healthy Twin Study; Potassium; Sodium; Systolic blood pressure
- Nutrients, v.12, no.11, pp.1 - 14
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- The purpose of this study was to examine the association of urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio and potassium-to-creatinine ratio with blood pressure in a cross-sectional study comprising Korean adults who participated in the Healthy Twin Study. The participants consisted of 2653 men and women in the Healthy Twin Study aged ≥19 years. Participants’ urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and creatinine was measured from overnight half-day urine samples. Food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressures according to sodium-or potassium-to-creatinine ratios using the generalized linear model. We determined food groups explaining high urinary sodium-or potassium-to-creatinine ratio using the reduced rank regression and calculated sodium-or potassium-contributing food score. We observed that systolic blood pressure was higher among men and women in the highest quintile of urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio or sodium-to-potassium ratio than it was in the lowest quintile. Geometric means (95% CIs) of the lowest and the highest quintiles of systolic blood pressure (mmHg) were 113.4 (111.8–115.0) and 115.6 (114.1–117.2; P for trend = 0.02), respectively, for sodium-to-creatinine ratio. The association between urinary sodium-to-creatinine and systolic blood pressure was more pronounced among individuals whose body mass index (BMI) was less than 25 kg/m2 (P for interaction = 0.03). We found that vegetables, kimchi and seaweed intake contributed to high sodium intake and a sodium-contributing food score were associated with increased blood pressure. In our study, we identified the food groups contributing to high sodium intake and found that high urinary sodium levels were associated with increasing blood pressure among Korean adults. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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