Naphthalimide-4-(4-nitrophenyl)thiosemicarbazide: A Fluorescent Probe for Simultaneous Monitoring of Viscosity and Nitric Oxide in Living Cells
- Kim, Su Jung; Park, Sun Young; Yoon, Shin A.; Kim, Changshin; Kang, Chulhun; Lee, Min Hee
- Issue Date
- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
- ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, v.93, no.10, pp.4391 - 4397
- Journal Title
- ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
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- End Page
- Intracellular viscosity is a physicochemical factor that determines the outcomes of various biological processes, while nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule that controls many cellular processes, including oxidative stress. Anticipating that both may be interrelated with a variety of pathologies, their simultaneous measurement would be highly valuable for the investigation of the pathological condition of cells. However, the development of a sensor for such simultaneous detection has not been attempted yet. Herein, we present the synthesis of naphthalimide-4-(4-nitrophenyl)thiosemicarbazide, probe 1, and its application to living cells under conditions of lipopolysaccharide or nystatin treatment, adopted as oxidative stress and altered intracellular viscosity models, respectively. The probe showed increased fluorescence in response to elevation of viscosity and NO levels at 470 and 550 nm, respectively, in the solution studies. When the probe was used for a confocal microscopic study of HeLa cells under stressed conditions, simultaneous monitoring of viscosity and NO level elevations was possible through fluorescence imaging using band-pass filters of 420-475 and 505-600 nm, respectively, upon excitation at a wavelength of 405 nm. Interestingly, both the cellular viscosity and NO levels increased together under lipopolysaccharide or nystatin treatment. Therefore, we suggest that probe 1 is a fluorescent chemical probe that enables the monitoring of alterations in intracellular viscosity and NO levels in living cells, which would be valuable in studies of various cellular damage models.
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