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19세기 파리 로스차일드은행의 설립과 성장The Establishment and Initial Development of the Parisian Rothschild Banking House in the 19th Century

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The Establishment and Initial Development of the Parisian Rothschild Banking House in the 19th Century
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1. 은행사(History of Bank)2. 로스차일드가(The Rothschilds)3. 로스차일드은행(Rothschild Banking House)4. 고등은행(High Bank)5. 북부철도회사(Compagnie des Chemins de fer du Nord)
서양사론, v.104, pp.177 - 205
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The House of Rothschild(or The Rothschilds) is a European dynasty of German Jewish origin that established international banking and finance houses from the late 1700s. Wanting his sons to succeed on their own and to expand the family business across Europe, Mayer Amschel Rothschild had his eldest son remain in Frankfurt, while his four other sons were sent to different European cities to establish a financial institution to invest in business and provide banking services. Spread out across Europe, they developed an unrivalled information network of secret routes and fast couriers. Endogamy within the family was an essential part of the Rothschild strategy in order to ensure control of their wealth remained in family hands. Through their collaborative efforts, the Rothschilds rose to prominence in a variety of banking endeavors including loans, government bonds and trading in bullion. Their financing afforded investment opportunities and during the 19th century they became major stakeholders in large-scale mining and rail transport ventures that were fundamental to the rapidly expanding industrial economies of Europe. In 1811, the Rothschild banking family of France was founded in Paris by James de Rothschild(1792-1868) who was sent there from his home in Frankfurt, Germany by his father. Following the Napoleonic Wars, he played a major role in financing the construction of railroads and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power. And Five brothers of the Rothschilds were given hereditary baronies of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis Ⅱ in 1816. In 1817, James formally created the bank, de Rothschild Frères whose partners were Rothschild brothers. In partnership with N. M. Rothschild & Sons of England they owned Chemins de Fer du Nord railway in France. In 1845, the French government awarded the contract for the first major railway line to be built in the country. The Rothschild Frères finances the Nord line. The winning bidder was Baron James de Rothschild, who envisaged his Chemins de Fer du Nord, running initially between Paris and Valenciennes, joining with the Austrian lines built by his brother, Salomon, and developing into a pan-European rail system. James became a true pioneer of the European railways, constructing a complex rail network across 10 countries. With the death of James de Rothschild in 1868 the first generation of Rothschild bankers came to an end. Still, their family links remained firm, strengthened by binding partnership agreements.
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