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Nutritional modulators of ulcerative colitis: Clinical efficacies and mechanistic view

Authors
Sung, Mi-KyungPark, Mi-Young
Issue Date
21-Feb-2013
Publisher
BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC
Keywords
Ulcerative colitis; Intestinal microflora; Immunity; Inflammation; Clinical; Obesity; Probiotics; Omega-3 fatty acids; Antioxidants
Citation
WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, v.19, no.7, pp.994 - 1004
Journal Title
WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
Volume
19
Number
7
Start Page
994
End Page
1004
URI
https://scholarworks.sookmyung.ac.kr/handle/2020.sw.sookmyung/11338
DOI
10.3748/wjg.v19.i7.994
ISSN
1007-9327
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammation-associated disease of the colon and rectum. The onset and progress of the disease are directly influenced by the nature of the intestinal microflora, the intestinal barrier function, and the immunological responses of the host. The epithelial invasion of pathogenic bacteria due to excess contact and/or barrier dysfunction is related to inflammation mediated by intestinal immune responses. Although the etiology of UC is not clearly understood, recent studies have shown a rising incidence of UC worldwide, and this phenomenon is more prominent in Asian countries and in Asian immigrants in Western countries. The increased prevalence of UC also contributes to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Environmental factors, including changes in dietary habits, have been suggested as major risk factors of UC. A systematic review showed a negative association between UC risk and vegetable intake, whereas total fat, omega-6 fatty acids and meat intake were positively associated with an increased risk of UC. Individual dietary factors and energy balance have been suggested as having important roles in inducing changes in the microbial population and intestinal barrier integrity and in regulating inflammatory immune responses, directly or indirectly. Excess energy intake is now known to increase pathogenic microbial populations. Likewise, the application of appropriate probiotics may reverse the pathogenic progression of the disease. In the meantime, dietary anti-inflammatory compounds, including omega-3 fatty acids and other phytochemicals, may directly suppress inflammatory responses in the course of UC development. In this review, the increased prevalence of UC and its management are interpreted from the standpoint of nutritional modulation to regulate the intestinal microflora population, intestinal epithelium permeability, and inflammatory responses. (C) 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
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